Dear BLM I didn’t own any slaves
By Beverley Jane Russell Op-ed contributor Trumpville Report
More and more nowadays especially more since Mr Obama took office in 2008 racial tension has been high! These ridiculous thoughts that white people are somehow are responsible for something our ancestors did that we had no control over is not only absurd but also completely wrong !
BLM White People are not your enemies
If you dig a little into the history of slave owners you will be surprised ! Africans were the first to capture other African tribes and use them and sell them as slaves. Actually and factually Africans were the first to sell black slaves ! So if you Really want to know who is accountable for black slavery look to none other than your African ancestors . Slavery in Africa has not only existed throughout the continent for many centuries, but still continues in the current day in some countries. Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of the continent, as they were in much of the ancient world. We agree Black Lives Matter too.
BLM have always mattered
In most African societies where slavery was prevalent, the enslaved people were not treated as chattel slaves and were given certain rights in a system similar to indentured servitude elsewhere in the world. Chattel slavery, also called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel (personal property) of the owner and are bought and sold as if they were commodities. It is the least prevalent form of slavery in the world today . When the Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade began, many of the local slave systems changed and began supplying captives for slave markets outside of Africa . In sub-Saharan Africa, the slave relationships were often complex, with rights and freedoms given to individuals held in slavery and restrictions on sale and treatment by their masters. Many communities had hierarchies between different types of slaves: for example, differentiating between those who had been born into slavery and those who had been captured through war. Several nations such as the Ashanti of present-day Ghana and the Yoruba of present-day Nigeria were involved in slave-trading.
Groups such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi of Tanzania would serve as intermediaries or roving bands, waging war on African states to capture people for export as slaves. Historians John Thornton and Linda Heywood have provided an estimate that Africans captured and then sold to Europeans around 90% of those who were shipped in the Atlantic slave trade. Henry Louis Gates, the Harvard Chair of African and African-American Studies, has stated that “without complex business partnerships between African elites and European traders and commercial agents, the slave trade to the New World would have been impossible, at least on the scale it occurred.
“It is a popular misconception that slavery in South Africa was mild compared to America and the European colonies in the Far East. This is not so, and punishments meted out could be very harsh. From 1680 to 1795 an average of one slave was executed in Cape Town each month and the decaying corpses would be re-hung around town to act as a deterrent to other slaves. With the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade, demand for slavery in West Africa increased and a number of states became centered on the slave trade and domestic slavery increased dramatically. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to onethird of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana(750–1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), and Songhai (1275–1591), about a third of the population were enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of enslaved people. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of enslaved people. The population of the Kanem (1600–1800) was about a third-enslaved. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1580–1890). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of enslaved people. The population of the Sokoto Caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-enslaved in the 19th century.
When British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century, approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were enslaved. Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936. The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa.
The increase of demand for slaves due to the expansion of European colonial powers to the New World made the slave trade much more lucrative to the West African powers, leading to the establishment of a number of actual West African empires thriving on slave trade. These included the Oyo empire (Yoruba), Kong Empire, Kingdom of Benin, Imamate of Futa Jallon, Imamate of Futa Toro, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Khasso, Kingdom of Kaabu, Fante Confederacy, Ashanti Confederacy, and the kingdom of Dahomey. The gradual abolition of slavery in European colonial empires during the 19th century again led to the decline and collapse of these African empires.
These kingdoms relied on a militaristic culture of constant warfare to generate the great numbers of human captives required for trade with the Europeans. A scathing reminder of this execrable practice is documented in the Slave Trade Debates of England in the early 19th century: “All the old writers… concur in stating not only that wars are entered into for the sole purpose of making slaves, but that they are fomented by Europeans, with a view to that object. When European powers began to stop the Atlantic slave trade, this caused a further change in that large holders of slaves in Africa began to exploit enslaved people on plantations and other agricultural products.
The first 19 or so Africans to reach the English colonies arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619, brought by Dutch traders who had seized them from a captured Spanish slave ship. The Spanish usually baptized slaves in Africa before embarking them. As English law then considered baptized Christians exempt from slavery, these Africans were treated as indentured servants, and they joined about 1,000 English indentured servants already in the colony. The Africans were freed after a prescribed period and given the use of land and supplies by their former masters. The historian Ira Berlin noted that what he called the “charter generation” in the colonies was sometimes made up of mixed-race men (Atlantic Creoles) who were indentured servants, and whose ancestry was African and Iberian. They were descendants of African women and Portuguese and Spanish men who worked in African ports as traders or facilitators in the slave trade. For example, Anthony Johnson arrived in Virginia in 1621 from Angola as an indentured servant; he became free and a property owner, eventually buying and owning slaves himself. The transformation of the status of Africans, from indentured servitude to slaves in a racial caste which they could not leave or escape, happened gradually.
The 18th century, Britain had become the world’s largest slave trader. During the revolutionary era, the rebellious colonies banned or suspended the international slave trade. This was done for a variety of economic, political, and moral reasons depending on the colony. The trade was later reopened in South Carolina and Georgia. In response to the British offer of freedom for slaves who fled rebel masters to fight with them, tens of thousands of such slaves went to British lines when it controlled an area. Others used the very disruption of war to escape their plantations and fade into cities or woods. For instance, in South Carolina, nearly 25,000 slaves (30% of the total enslaved population) fled, migrated or died during the war. Throughout the South, losses of slaves were high, with many due to escapes. Slaves also escaped throughout New England and the mid-Atlantic, joining the British who had occupied New York.
In the closing months of the war, the British evacuated 20,000 freedmen from major coastal cities, transporting more than 3,000 for resettlement in Nova Scotia, with others taken to the Caribbean islands, and some to England.
At the same time, the British were transporting Loyalists and their slaves, primarily to the Caribbean, but some to Nova Scotia. For example, over 5,000 enslaved Africans owned by Loyalists were transported in 1782 from Savannah to Jamaica and St. Augustine. Similarly, over half of the black people evacuated from Charleston to the West Indies and Florida by the British in 1782 were slaves owned by White Loyalists.
Slaves and free blacks also fought on the side of rebels during the Revolutionary War. Washington authorized slaves to be freed who fought with the American Continental Army. Rhode Island started enlisting slaves in 1778, and promised compensation to owners whose slaves enlisted and survived to gain freedom. During the course of the war, about one fifth of the northern army was black. In 1781, Baron Closen, a German officer in the French Royal Deux-Ponts Regiment at the Battle of Yorktown, estimated the American army to be about one-quarter black. These men included both former slaves and free blacks.
Some Northern colonies passed laws to abolish slavery during the Revolutionary Era. These self-declared state legislatures enacted the first abolition laws in the “New World”. The 1777 Constitution of the Vermont Republic banned slavery, freeing males over the age of 21 and women over the age of 18. Pennsylvania in 1780 passed An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, which declared all children born after the act to be free. Massachusetts, via the Quock Walker Case of 1783, ended slavery in the state based on its statement of human equality in its constitution.
The American Civil war , America abolishes slavery ! Proves BLM is right
In the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U.S. territories, something the Southern states viewed as a violation of their constitutional rights and as being part of a plan to eventually abolish slavery. The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a majority of the electoral votes, and Lincoln was elected the first Republican president, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The US Civil War was incontrovertibly the bloodiest, most devastating conflict in American history, and it remains. An estimated three-and-a-half million men fought in the American Civil War and approximately 620,000 perished, which was more than all of America’s combined combat fatalities from previous wars. Casualties include three categories: 1) dead (aka fatalities, killed-in-action and mortally wounded); 2) wounded; and 3) missing or captured. In general terms, casualties of Civil War battles included 20% dead and 80% wounded. Of the soldiers who were wounded, about one out of seven died from his wounds. Over 2/3 of the estimated 620,000 men who gave their lives in the Civil War died from disease, not from battle. When one totals the Americans that died in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican American War, Spanish American War, World War One, World War Two, Korean War, and Vietnam War, it is less than the total American Civil War casualties.
Union Casualty (Fatality) Estimates:
- Battle Deaths: 110,070
- Disease, etc.: 250,152
- Total Deaths: 360,222
Confederate Estimated Losses (Fatalities):
- Battle Deaths: 94,000
- Disease, etc.: 164,000
- Total Deaths: 258,000
In spite of their many hardships, African-American soldiers served the Union Army well and distinguished themselves in many battles. Of their service to the nation Frederick Douglass said, “Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right of citizenship in the United States.” African-American soldiers comprised about 10 percent of the Union Army. It is estimated that one-third of all African Americans who enlisted lost their lives. African-Americans made up less than 1 percent of the North’s population but were 10 percent of the Union Army . So maybe you should be thanking the white man whom fought and died for your freedom instead of saying the white man owes you restitution ! Yes your ancestors may have been brought to the New World as slaves but it was 9 times outta 10 they were sold by their own people ! It was The New World through the Civil War “the bloodiest war in American History ” that stood and fought for your freedom !
It has been over 150 years since slavery !
Like I said I don’t own any slaves , and you don’t pick any cotton ! I agree BLM as well as all life. Thank you for bringing the subject up, I was unaware of how many lives are taken when deadly force is used. Too many people killed of all colors.
THE ONLY WAY TO UNITE OUR COUNTRY IS WITH DONALD TRUMP
NO KILLARY CLINTON AND HER WAR MONGERING ON RACE !
TRUMP / PENCE TO UNITE AMERICA 2016
By Beverley Jane Russell Op-ed contributor Trumpville Report